The UNEP Global Mercury Partnership seeks to reduce Hg emission and use. But this will neither roll back the toxic legacy of past Hg emissions nor end the increasing exposure of millions of people to harmful levels of this potent neurotoxin. Land use in Sweden (forestry) and China (rice cultivation) has a decisive influence on the transformations and mobilization of Hg that exposes people to Hg, even though these two livelihoods did not put Hg in the environment. SMaReF in Degerö/Svartberget is a flagship site for the comparioson of Hg cycling in Sweden and China. Degerö is a wetland for comparison to Chinese Rice fields.